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Fall Creek Sites and

Additional Buchanan Lake Sites

Annual Report of WPA and the University of Texas Archaeological Research Lake Buchanan 1936-1937

A. T. Jackson and Arthur M. Woolsey - 1938

 Gustav's Library Vintage Reprint

The construction of dams on the Colorado River above Austin, Texas would destroy river shore archaeological sites for up to 150 miles upstream from the dam. An archaeological salvage project was commenced in 1937 to recover as much information as possible in the short time before the waters of Lake Buchanan would cover these sites forever.

When the Federal Government developed the Colorado River project for the construction of a series of dams across the river in the hills above Austin, the undersigned became deeply concerned at the prospect of seeing many of the richest and most important archaeological sites in Texas inundated and lost to science for all time. He made application early in 1936 to the WPA authorities for approval of a project to explore as many of these sites as possible before they should be finally covered by water. The project was finally set up in January, 1937, so that less than six months of the then current fiscal year was left in which to do the work which had been planned for the whole year. Some of this work was carried over into the present fiscal year, and that work is represented in the present report. At present the Buchanan Lake has nearly filled with water, and all work in that basin has ceased........The above mentioned facts indicate the importance of the sites being explored. The early inhabitants, from the time this region was first occupied by man to the coming of the white man, lived along the river and chiefly about the mouths of incoming streams. These sites are so situated that practically all will be covered by the projected lakes which will extend from Austin, following the river bed, about 150 miles into the hills to the west.  (J. E. Pearce, Director and sponsor, WPA Archaeological Research Project in the Colorado River Lake Beds)
 

This 7" x 10", 153 page, soft cover, facsimile reprint is illustrated with 4 maps, 27 plates and 32 figures.  $14.95

   

FALL CREEK SITES
Fall Creek Campsites Caves Carved and Painted Stones Grinding Stones

Hearths

WPA Project Map

Rock Shelter

Waterfall and Excavation

ADDITIONAL LAKE BUCHANAN SITES

Flint Artifacts, San Saba County Rock Shelter, Burnett County Ceremonial Spear or Knife Manos, Llano County
       
Sample  Plates - click on image to enlarge

 

CONTENTS

FOREWORD
THE FALL CREEK SITES, by A. T. Jackson
Introduction
Reconnaissance Work
Locations of Sites
Food
Mortar Holes
The Artifacts
Work in Burnet County
Fall Creek Sites Excavation
Site No. 3, Llano County
Mound No. 1
Mound No. 2
Mound No, 3
Midden No. 1
Midden No. 2
Levels in Burnt-Rock Midden
Depth of Specimens in Burnt-Rock Area
Discussion of Projectile Point Types Mano Types
Summary of Finds by Depths
Midden No. 3
Rock Shelter No. 1
Summary of Finds at Site No. 3
Rock Shelter No. 240
Rock Shelter No. 340
Site No. 2, San Saba County
Midden No. 1
Summary of Finds in 7x7-Foot Test
Frequency of Specimens Compared with Midden Content
Summary of Finds by Depths
Midden No. 2
Burnt-Rock Midden Not Always Oldest
Summary of Finds by Depths
Midden No. 3
Cave No. 1
Cave No. 2
Shelter No. 2
Summary of Finds at Site No. 2
Recapitulation of Finds. Fall Creek Sites
Burials at Fall Creek Sites
Burial No. 1
Burial No. 2 (BB-1)
Burial No. 3 (BB-2)
Burial No. 4 (BCD
Infant Burials (Nos. 5 to 11)
Burial Data Midden No. 2, Site No. 2
Report on Skeletal Material
Hearths
Rubbish and Other Pits
Food
Artifacts from Fall Creek Sites
Metates, Manos and Pestles
Large So-Called Ceremonial Blades
Hoeblade
Grooved Hammer or Maul
Notched Stones or So-Called "Sinkers"
Carved and Scratched Stones
Painted Pebble
Boatstones
Stone Plaques or Gorgets
Paint Materials
Ground Projectile Points(?)
Possible Charm Stones
Flint Artifacts
 
  Microliths or So-Called "Bird Points"
Folsom-Like and Yuma Points
Knives
Awls and Drills
Fist Axes
Axes for Hafting
Scrapers
Other Flint Artifacts
Obsidian
Shell Specimens
Bone Specimens
Antler Handles
Pottery
Data Concerning Possible Origin of Potsherds
Trade Articles
Possible Tribal and Cultural Relations
Conclusions
Bibliography
 

ADDITIONAL BUCHANAN LAKE SITES, by Arthur M. Woolsey
Excavation
Site No. 1, San Saba County
Finds
Manos and Metates
Flint Specimens
Knives
Drills
Projectile Points
General Discussion
Site No. 57, Burnet County
Pictographs
Further Discussion of the Site
Finds
Stone Artifacts
Manos and Metates
Pestle-like Stones
"Net Sinkers"
Flint Artifacts
Summary of Flint Artifacts
Knives
Drills
Projectile Points
Bone Artifacts
Carved Pebbles
Wood Specimen
Negative Finds
Artifacts of All Classes by Depths
Site No. 9, Llano County
Mussel Shell Heap
Mortar Hole
Summary of Finds by Classes and Depths
Finds
Manos
Edged
Pestle-like Stones
Metates
Flint Specimens
Scrapers
Knives
Drills
Projectile Points
Carved Stones
Chalk
Summary
Editor's Note
Index


MAPS

I.
II
III
IV
  Basin of Lake Buchanan and Adjacent Region
Fall Creek Site No. 3, Llano County
Fall Creek Site No. 2, San Saba County
Central and Southwest Texas Counties in Which Potsherds Are Found

PLATES

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
XVI
XVII
XVIII
XIX
XX
XXI
XXII
XXIII
   
XXIV
XXV
XXVI
XXVII

  Surface Sites, Llano County, Texas
Scenes at Site No. 3, Llano County
Digging at Site No. 3, Llano County
Types of Projectile Points, Mound No. 3, Site No. 3
Caves at Site No. 2, San Saba County
Skeletal Remains from Burial BB-2, Site No. 3
Burial BC-1, Midden No. 1, Site No. 2
Close-up Views of Skull, Burial BC-1
Hearths at Site No. 3
Grinding Implements, Llano County
Unusual Stone Specimens, Sites No. 2 and 3
Large So-Called Ceremonial Blades, Site No. 3
Carved and Painted Stones
Boatstones Found in Midden Deposits, Sites No. 2 and 3
Unusual Specimens, Sites No. 2 and 3
Projectile Points, Sites No. 2 and 3
Flint Artifacts, Sites No. 2 and 3
Flint Implements, Knives, Drills and Awls
Shell and Bone Artifacts
Bone Implements
Bone, Antler and Wood Specimens
Potsherds Found in Midden Deposits, Sites No. 2 and 3
Sherds from One Vessel, Site No. 2
Ceremonial Spearhead or Knife Blade, Site No. 9
Views at Sites No. 1, 9 and 57
Flint Artifacts, Sites No. 1, 9 and 57
Manos of Various Sizes and Shapes, Site No. 9
Various Classes of Flint Artifacts, Sites No. 9 and 57

FIGURES

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
  Depth Range of Projectile Points, Mound No. 3, Site No. 3
Types of Projectile Points in Burnt-Rock Area of Midden No. 2, Site No. 3
Depth Range of Projectile Points in Burnt-Rock Area of Midden No. 2, Site No. 3
Projectile Points, Burnt-Rock Area of Midden No. 2, Site No. 3
Projectile Points, Burnt-Rock Area of Midden No. 2, Site No. 3
Projectile Points, Burnt-Rock Area of Midden No. 2, Site No. 3
Projectile Points, Burnt-Rock Area of Midden No. 2, Site No. 3
Projectile Points, Burnt-Rock Area of Midden No. 2, Site No. 3
Depth Range of Manos, Burnt-Rock Area of Midden No. 2, Site No. 3
Cross-Section of Midden No. 1, Site No. 2
Depth Range of Projectile Points, Midden No. 1, Site No. 2
Cross-Section of Deposit, Midden No. 2, Site No. 2
Depth Range of Projectile Points, Midden No. 2, Site No. 2
Metates and Mano, Llano County
Manos of Various Shapes, Llano County
Thin, Notched Stones or So-Called "Sinkers," Llano County
Designs on a Carved Pehhle, Site No. 3
Large Projectile Points, Site No. 3
Projectile Points of Various Types
Arrowpoints or So-Called "Bird Points"
Depth Range of Knives, Site No. 2.
Flint Knives of Various Sizes
Flint Awls and Drills
Depth Range of Flint Awls and Drills
Flint Fist Axes or Coups-de-poing, Site No. 46, Llano County
Flint End-Scrapers
Flint Implements
Flint Gouges or Axes
Cross-section of Midden, Site No. 1, San Saba County
Overhanging Ledge, Site No. 57, Burnet County
Cross-section of Midden Under Shelter, Site No. 57
Carved Pebbles and Wall Painlings, Site No. 57